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If we get it wrong, everything falls apart.

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You might have noticed that everything seems to be falling apart But the debate about masculinity rarely seems to progress. On one side I'll put my cards on the table here and say my side , progressive academic types mostly take a feminist position and talk about patriarchy and power, and how this marginalises women and atypical men.

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Increasingly, these types also refer to queer theory, which is not solely about gay and lesbian people, rather resisting ways of pigeon-holing the identities of all people. On the other side, are those who often quite rightly identify the many problems suffered by men in society, and simply do not see claims about patriarchy and power as valid any more, chiefly because they are looking at individual men who appear not to be enjoying the privileges of power, rather than the systemic and institutional nature of power. The very words 'systemic and institutional nature of power' will often make these types wince.

This debate has been going on for years: one side claiming they cannot state their watertight case about patriarchy any clearer, the other finding that case unrepresentative of the truth. We have to start finding different ways to frame this debate to make any progress. This is not about finding a middle ground; it as about finding a different ground. It is about finding a different lens through which to view the 'problem' of masculinity.

Is Masculinity TOXIC? (RE: Gillette)

Recently I have been using the lens of conspiracy logic. The popular definition of conspiracy can be found in the idea of a cover-up, and to a large degree this is certainly the case. However, there are various aspects to conspiracy that are worth unpacking. In his book, A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America , political scientist Michael Barkun claims conspiracy is a method through which people explain the presence of evil in the world. They do this by viewing 'history as controlled by massive, demonic forces'.


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Conspiracies can therefore be seen as simultaneously frightening and reassuring: the demonic forces are at work, but at least they can be identified as the source of everything around us that is bad, as opposed to the true terror of random evil. Barkun identifies three key aspects to conspiracy theories, which are worth spelling out.

Masculinity

First, nothing happens by accident : there is always intent behind actions; the willed nature of reality is paramount. Second, nothing is as it seems : the source of a conspiracy tends to conceal its activities through the appearance of innocence or misinformation. Third, everything is connected : patterns abound in conspiracy; exposing conspiracy is about unveiling these hidden connections.

Barkun sees this type of thinking as ultimately resulting in paranoia: a closed system of ideas that 'defeat any attempt at testing' due to the assumption that all the evidence countering the conspiracy must be part of the conspiracy, and therefore rejected. To be fair, Barkun is highly critical of conspiracy belief, and when you look at the examples he provides such as the Illuminati and extraterrestrial reptilian masters, it is tempting to agree with him.

But because conspiracy theories can often be a bit flaky, it doesn't mean that they are always flaky, or that at the very least there aren't some reasonable things that resemble conspiracies, inasmuch as there being a widespread assumption that needs to be exposed as false. And this is what I'm getting at with the Masculinity Conspiracy.

Gender theorists have been claiming for some time that there is no such thing as a singular 'masculinity'. Increasingly, these types also refer to queer theory, which is not solely about gay and lesbian people, rather resisting ways of pigeon-holing the identities of all people. On the other side, are those who often quite rightly identify the many problems suffered by men in society, and simply do not see claims about patriarchy and power as valid any more, chiefly because they are looking at individual men who appear not to be enjoying the privileges of power, rather than the systemic and institutional nature of power.

The very words 'systemic and institutional nature of power' will often make these types wince. This debate has been going on for years: one side claiming they cannot state their watertight case about patriarchy any clearer, the other finding that case unrepresentative of the truth. We have to start finding different ways to frame this debate to make any progress. This is not about finding a middle ground; it as about finding a different ground. It is about finding a different lens through which to view the 'problem' of masculinity. Recently I have been using the lens of conspiracy logic.


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The popular definition of conspiracy can be found in the idea of a cover-up, and to a large degree this is certainly the case. However, there are various aspects to conspiracy that are worth unpacking. In his book, A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America , political scientist Michael Barkun claims conspiracy is a method through which people explain the presence of evil in the world. They do this by viewing "history as controlled by massive, demonic forces".

The Masculinity Conspiracy – Joseph Gelfer, PhD

Conspiracies can therefore be seen as simultaneously frightening and reassuring: the demonic forces are at work, but at least they can be identified as the source of everything around us that is bad, as opposed to the true terror of random evil. Barkun identifies three key aspects to conspiracy theories, which are worth spelling out.

First, nothing happens by accident : there is always intent behind actions; the willed nature of reality is paramount.

Second, nothing is as it seems : the source of a conspiracy tends to conceal its activities through the appearance of innocence or misinformation. Third, everything is connected : patterns abound in conspiracy; exposing conspiracy is about unveiling these hidden connections. Barkun sees this type of thinking as ultimately resulting in paranoia: a closed system of ideas that 'defeat any attempt at testing' due to the assumption that all the evidence countering the conspiracy must be part of the conspiracy, and therefore rejected.

To be fair, Barkun is highly critical of conspiracy belief, and when you look at the examples he provides such as the Illuminati and extraterrestrial reptilian masters, it is tempting to agree with him.

Masculinity

But because conspiracy theories can often be a bit flaky, it doesn't mean that they are always flaky, or that at the very least there aren't some reasonable things that resemble conspiracies, inasmuch as there being a widespread assumption that needs to be exposed as false. And this is what I'm getting at with the Masculinity Conspiracy. Gender theorists have been claiming for some time that there is no such thing as a singular "masculinity".

Instead, there is a vast spectrum of different masculinities, some of which look familiar, some of which do not. The problem, in this worldview, is that those different masculinities and women are oppressed and denied by that chief masculinity. Instead of thinking about this chief masculinity solely in terms of power and identity, let's try conspiracy. Let's assume there are certain people who are being oppressed men and women alike, for various reasons.

It appears that the way we define masculinity has not happened by accident. It appears that nothing about masculinity is as it commonly seems. It appears that a number of key themes in society are connected to form a legitimising framework for the Masculinity Conspiracy. It is about acknowledging that there is something going on with masculinity beyond the awareness of most people.

Can those who find the language of patriarchy and power too problematic adopt the language of conspiracy? I think it's worth finding out. Perhaps the language of conspiracy is more familiar and less judgmental?