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Villa Po Breze 5. Allodium Bukovina, Molendinum Kosmatica 6. Miles Zolunta, Vogt Pribislav 2. Sible wurde verschliffen Zentrum der illyrischen Labeaten war Skodra, lat. Scodra, alb. Shkoder, ital. Skutari, serb Skbdbr, das zugleich Sitz des illyrischen Konigreisches bis zu dessen Fall eben im Jahr v.

Bischolsitz, der ein letztes Mal zu erwhnt wird, was gewiss mit dem grossen Awaren-Slaven-Sturm auf Dalmatien zu tun hat. Der Name Scodra taucht spater als Ortsname Sehender in Mitteldeutschland auf, wohin ihn fraglos Slaven verfrachtet haben Bemerkenswert ist nun allerdings, dass der Skutarisee, der Labeatispalus in spaterer Zeit noch einen weiteren Namen hatte, nmlich Balta.


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Um heisst es beim Presbyter von Dioclea: Miroslavus Wie alt die Bezeichnung Balta fr den Skutarisee ist. Balta als auch slav. Es berrascht nun freilich, dass der alte Name der in den Ilmensee mundenten Lovat Balta ein slavisches Volota geworden. Die Lovat hiess also nich Boloto, -was zu erwarten ware, lge ein slav.

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Wie sind diese Slovenen an den Ilmensee gekommen? Man hat bereits richtig erkannt, dass "die slavische Besiedlung des osteuropaischen Raumes zu verschiedenen Zeiten, etappenweise und aus verschiedenen Richtungen erfolgte. Wie sich zeigt, tragt eine Reihe von Flssen des Ilmensee-Bassins Namen, die eindeutung balkanischer Provenienz sind, so in erster Linie das Hydronyms Lovat, das zusammen mit seinem alteren Namen Volota ein schlussiger Beweis dafr ist, dass hier die antike Bezeichnung fr den Skutarisee vorgelegen hat. Moglicherweise hangt der Name des Ilmensee-Zuflusses Selon mit dem dalmatinischen Hydronym Salon zusammen, under der Novogoroder Bachname Konduja hat wohl weniger mit dem Finnischen zu tun, sondern spiegelt den illyrischen?

Landschaftsnamen Candavia wider Vor diesem Hintergrund kann es nicht mehr berraschen, wenn auch die Namen Rusa und Rus-weder aus dem Finnischen noch dem Skandinavischen, sondern eben vom Balkan kommen Der Russen-Name fugt sich, wie man sieht, vortrefflich in die Reihe derjenigen slavischen Stammesnamen, die nicht autochthonen Ursprungs sind, sondern als fremde Ethnonyme, Toponyme u. Die inzwischen stattliche Reiche solcher bernahmen reicht von den westslavischen Abodriten, Daleminci, Zirzipani, Kaschuben und Poljane Polen biz zu den ostslavischen Derevljane, Volynjane und Huzulen.

Urheimat der Slaven wohl nicht langer am galizischen Nordrand der Karpaten vermuten. Hier ist selbst die alteuropaische Hydronomie machtlos. Obwohl die Konturen der slavischen Wanderbewegungen immer deutlicher werden, durfte es vermutlich lange dauern, bis sich die neue Erkenntnis von der Herkunft des Russen-Namens durchsetzen wird. Als hemmend wird sich dabei nicht allein die alte normannistische Rotsi-These erweisen, auch emotionale Reaktionen werden das Ihre dazu tun. Falls es aber vermessen anmutet, den Namen des grossen Russland mit dem der kleinen Adria-Insel-Ragusa in Verbindung zu bringen, dann sie an die 'bescheidenen' Anfange auch anderer grosser Lander erinnert, zum Bespiel daran, dass der Doppelkontinent Amerika seinen Namen dem italienischen Seefahrer Amerigo Vespucci verdankt.

Blazanaja Ljudmila bese ot zemle serbskyja, kneze serbskago dosti , to Dragomira e. Mit Beginn des Krieges gegen die Sowjetunion im Juni wurde die gesamte Organisation ausgeweitet. Unter ihrem Leiter Werner Lorenz wurden zahlreiche weitere Institutionen geschaffen, so dass es bald zu Kompetenzstreitigkeiten mit dem Stabshauptamt kam. Es handelte sich um:. Im Jahr wurde das Rassen- und Siedlungsamt aufgewertet.

Mit Wirkung zum Bis zum Jahre wurden auf diese Weise in Eine weitere dritte Stelle wurde zeitweilig in Slowenien unterhalten.

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Die Umwandererzentralstelle UWZ , errichtet am Der Plan sah einen Zuzug von rund September, in einen Befehl an die entsprechenden SS-Einsatzgruppen. Die Deportationen begannen am 1. Dezember In den ersten beiden Monaten lief die Deportationsmaschine auf Hochtouren: So wurden circa Neben Frank nahmen an der Konferenz vom Der Evakuierungsstopp aus dem Altreich endete formell am September Insbesondere sollte das Ghetto Litzmannstadt als Auffanglager der deportierten Juden dienen.

Machajewski, Skandinawskie elementy kulturowe na Pomorzu zachodnim z okresu wecrowek ludow, PrG 40, Schoknecht, Wikinger und Slawen. Ein Jahrtausand Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, I n order to better understand the role of the Baltic Slavs in the formation and growth of Scandinavia's towns, industry, and commerce in the 9th and 10th centuries, it is important to remember that Scandinavia's early history and civilization has an Eastern orientation, that the runic alphabet is Greek in origin, that scenes depicted on large limestones relate to Greek rather than Nordic mythology.

Klinge, a leading Finnish authority on the Baltic writes: Contrary to early belief, the fascinating large pictorial stones that have been preserved in Gotland do not seem to to reflect the mythical-historical world immortalized by Norwegian and Icelandic sagas and runes. Strange to say, they actually depict scenes from the epics of Homer M. Klinge, The Baltic World, Ptolemy mentions the Wilti Viltaei in the 1st century A. Following Wilibord's consecration in , Bede writes: Pepin gave him a place for his episcopal see, in his famous castle, called by an ancient of those countries Wiltaburg, as you would say Town of the Wilts; but, in the Gallic tongue it is called Trajectum: Donavit autem ei Pippin locum cathedrale episcopalis in castello suo inlustri, quodantiquo gentium illarum verbo Viltaburg, idest, Oppidum Viltorum, lingua autem Gallica Traiectum VOCatur W.

The Wilti mainland is a chain of fortified cities, of important centers of industry and commerce: e. Kowalenko, Staroslowianskigrodyponawe na Baltyku, ZaC 6, Sulowski, Slowianskie organizaqe polityczne nod Baltykiem, RoH26, Leciejewicz, Grod ipodgrodzie u Slmuian zachodnich, Pocztaki zamkow w Polsce, Otrebski, Rus, LpS 8, Respond, Pochodzenie nazuy Rus,RoC38, More precisely, Professor Klinge believes that the ancient Rus originated that part of Baltic Slavia dominated by the Rugians: A nation famed for their travels and warlike expeditions.

An interesting fact in favor of Klinge's thesis is the fact that in some medieval documents the Rugians are identified as Ruscis: Quiprimitus Ruscis adpraedicandum directus vix evasit, Oseiglowski, Wyspa slowianskich bogov, Gotland was also an independent entity in the early Middle Ages. The artifacts, structures, and burial customs on the islands differ from those found on mainland Scandinavia.

Large quantities of Slavonic pottery are found on the islands. On the Gotland stones one sees warriors wearing helmets crowned with a pike, a Slavic fashion.


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  • In addition to numerous finds of Slavic origin, Marten Stenberge, a leading Swedish archaeologist and excavator of Ekestorp on Oland, finds evidence that Oland was occupied by Slavs from the southern coast of the Baltic as is indicated by Saxo and the Knytlinga Saga. Regarding Bornholm, Gotland, Oland, and southern Sweden generally, Herrmann writes, not only have many finds of Slavic origin been found in this area, but, from the midth century onwards, he finds evidence of earlier Slavic strongholds being refortified.

    One at Pavik, on the mouth of a river that flows into the Pavik lagoon, one at Visby, where a shallow lagoon harbor is sheltered by steep limestone cliffs, and a third harbor of the same type at Bogevik. Birka portum regni ipsorum quiBirca dicitur , Helgo's successor, on the neighboring island of Bjorko in Lake Malaren, is one of the earliest true urban centres of the Swedish mainland: Ad quam stationern, qui tutissima eest in maritimis Suevoniae regionibus, solent omnes Danorum vel Normannorum itemque Sclavorum ac Semborum naves aliique Scithiaepopulipro diversis commerciorum necessitatibus sottempniter convenire.

    On a rocky and wooded peninsula, running deep into Lake Malaren, between the islands of Helgo and Birka, excavations have also revealed a small trading settlement in the Slavic manner at Sigtuna.

    Here and throughout southeastern Sweden the local dress was similar to that of the Baltic Slavs. Tunics and patterned linen shirts in the Slavic fashion were very much in vogue. In west Jutland, on marshland beside the Ribe river, near the North Sea coast, Ribe was an important settlement for trade with western Europe, with roots in the 8th century, when it appears to have been a seasonal trading center with several workshops, similar in name, location, and structure to other Slav maritime trading outposts.

    Svein Ericksson the Scorcher, King of Denmark , it is said, fought the Wends at Kalvslunde [on Zealand] where he won the victory and killed a great number of men Knytlinga Saga. The Knytlinga Saga is perhaps a bit discreet regarding Svein's reliance on his Slav allies: After King Svein had been in Saxony a short while, he got tired of it and went over there to Wendland, where he paid the Wends to ferry him over to Fyn.

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    Numerous scholars including an 18th century authority, T. Segerum De Slavis et Lecho, are certain that a number of place names in northeastern Netherlands are derived from Slavic roots originating in early Slavic trading settlements. Safarik writes: ZeVeleti v Nizozemi, mezi odnozemi Renu, jmenovite v podkraji reky Wahalis Wahl , blize mesta Utrechtu, tez dale na pomori Frislandskem Procez v pozedjsich casich jen podridku a nedosti znale slepeje slovanskych Veletuv v Nizozemsku se namitaji. Sem prinalezeji predevsim mistni jmena budto k Veletum obzvlaste, budto ke Slovanum vubec se vztahujici, np.

    Wespe Vyspa? Podbone v jazyku starohollandskem nektere sledy slovanciny znamenati Ize na. Popisvetviasidel'Sebrany Spisy, II, The following brief excerpts from medieval sources cited by Safarik confirm the presence and important role played by the Wilti in northwestern Europe.

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    Wilti illi de aquilonariHollandia et Slavi There is direct and substantial evidence that Slav armies were involved in prior and successive invasions of England, including the campaigns of and that brought England to its knees and placed the English crown on the head of King Canute in , as well as other Viking campaigns in northern Europe.

    Safarik finds evidence of Wilti settlement in English place names: K vire podobno jest, ze tymz casern i v Britanii nektere celedi Veletuv se osadily, kdez neco pozdeji mesto Wiltun, krajina Wiltsaeten cz. Wilts nyni Wiltshire a lide Wiltunisci se pripominaji. Oboji osadnici, nizozemsti i britansti nezjevivse se nikde v dosti jasnem svetle v histori, brzo a obsoru jejiho se trati Mnohem temnejsi a nejistejsi jsou zpravy o nekdejsim prebyvani Veletuv v Anglicanech, jmenovite v te krajine, kteraz po osazeni se Anglosasuv v Britannii Wiltsaeten Wilts sloula, a z niz nynejsi hrabstvi Wiltunshire povstalo.

    With regard to the Danes, the mighty lords of Scandinavia, Helmold writes: They think nothing of the attacks of the Danes; in fact, they esteem it play to measure arms with them. Indeed, according to Helmold, the Danes were so easy to defeat that wars against them tended to soften the Slavs: Filled with the riches of the Danes; they grew fat.

    I say, thick, gross! PIRATE RAIDS Perhaps the most authoritative and graphic account of the consequences of Slav domination and command of Scandinavian waters, islands, and coastal lands in the mid 12th century, of continuous raids by Slav pirates, namely the Obodrites, Lutici and Rugians, is found in Saxo's Gesta Danorum: Piracy was so unchecked that all the villages along the eastern coast, from Vendsyssel to the Eider, were empty of inhabitants, and the countryside was unfilled. Zealand was barren to the east and south, and languished in desolation Pirate raids had left nothing of Funen, except for a few inhabitants.

    But Lolland Other places were desolated. Thus there was no confidence either in arms or in forts; and the inlets of the sea were obstructed by long pales and stakes, so as not to let the pirates in. The Slavs restored their pirate ships and seized opulent islands in the land of the Danes. They were, after their long abstinence, filled with the riches of the Danes. Hence, also, predatory habits have until this present age been so strong among them that they have always turned their hands to the fitting out of naval expeditions to the utter neglect of the advantages of agriculture.

    The ships are their only hope and the sum total of their wealth. All attempts to give this heroic community of Slavic Vikings a Scandinavian dimension have wilted under the hard facts of history, archaeology, linguistics, and logic. More than everything else, however, what distinguished this fiercely independent, self-governing entity from other pirate-warrior communities was its strict set of rules: The first section of their laws was that no man should become a member who was older than fifty or younger than eighteen Kinship was not to be taken into consideration when those who were not members wished to be enrolled.

    No man must run from anyone who was as doughty and well-armed as himself. Each must avenge the other as his own brother. No one must speak a word of fear or be frightened in any situation however black things looked. Anything of value, however big or small it was, which they won on their expeditions was to be taken to the banner, and anyone who failed to do this was to be expelled.

    No one was to stir up contention there. If there was any news, no one must be so rash as to repeat to all and sundry. Volsung zdef uzita otecne forma misto puvodniho jmena Valsi cz. Velsi i v povesti Sverrissaga a v nekterych jinych se pripomina. Tyz hrdina slove v anglosaske basni Beowulf Valse, syn jeho Valsin, v nemecke pak povesti Wilkinasaga onen Wali, Welsi, tento Walsing, Welsing, kmen Welisunga, a coz najpamatnejsiho jest, v teto a v jine povesti, recene Blomsturvallasaga, les Walslonguwald, jinak i Latiwald.

    V pozdejsich pamatkach divotvorny mec hrdiny nos cestne jmeno Walsung, Weisung, Wilsung. Zdaliz toto preneseni hrdinskeho jmeno Walsi, Welsi, do baje na severu u Skandinavcuv, cili na zapadu u Frankuv se zapocalo, nemecti zpytatele nechaf rozhodnou: ze jmeno to od hrdinskeho narodu Veletuv na smyslene reky nemecke preslo, zda se byti nepochybne V jinych povestech a basnech panuje form Wilz, mn. Numerous sources testify to early and dense Slavic settlement in locum qui dicitur Hliuni.

    Hundreds of villages, towns, toponyms, and hydronyms with Slavic names are detailed in numerous studies. The following are some of the bona Slavicalias recorded in Derisi quidem homines hujusgentis quondam cum sua lingua a nostyris Saxonibus habiti sunt, act usu illius a Praefectis gravi sub poena interdicto, plerumque ejus se gnaros esse negarunt, quofactum, ut ea inter serniores duntaxat ruricolas vigeat.

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    Et brevi habuissemus gentem vernaculae suaeignaram, nisisub GeorgiiLudoviciSerenissimiElectorisnostridementiregimine ad conservationem atque usum illius iterum excitati fuissent nostri hi Slavi Johannes Freidrich Pffefinger, Vocaubularum Venedicum, Abraham Frenceli, De Originibus linguae Sorabicae.

    Liber primus, ; Liber secundus, Liebnitz, the great philosopher, mathematician, and scholar who emerged as a leading patron of efforts to record and preserve the Slavic languages and of Germany. Bittner, SLavica bei G. One of the first Polabian texts , for example, originated in a letter from Liebnitz to Privy Councillor Christian Schrader in Celle, who, in turn, wrote to Georg Friedrich Mithoff, the magistrate in Luchow, regarding Polabian antiquities and language G.